A Three-Wheeled 125 – 225MPG Hybrid
Featured in Discovery Channel’s NextWorld episode, Future Radical Vehicles
The XR3 Personal Transit Vehicle (PTV) is a super-fuel-efficient two-passenger plug-in hybrid that achieves 125 mpg on diesel power alone, 225 mpg equivalent when diesel and electric power are used in series, and performance like a conventional automobile. The design of the XR3 Hybrid is based on existing technologies and a vehicle personality that makes conserving energy a fun driving experience. It showcases the design ideas explored in Robert Q. Riley’s book, Alternative Cars in the 21st Century.
At just 1480 pounds, this high-performance design combines fast acceleration, a maximum speed of 80 mph, and fuel economy of 125- to over 200-mpg. You can set it up as a diesel-powered vehicle and get up to 125 mpg. As a hybrid, fuel economy can excede 200 mpg. And as a pure battery-electric vehicle, it can run 40 to 100 miles on a single charge, depending on the number of batteries.
Its clam-shell canopy and three-wheel platform boldly differentiates the XR3 from conventional passenger cars. The vehicle’s hybrid power system, diesel engine, and low curb weight are the main ingredients of its super-high fuel economy and excellent performance. Acceleration equal to that of a conventional car and a maximum speed of 80 mph make the XR3 Hybrid equally at home on freeways and surface streets.
Plans enable people with common building skills to build a duplicate of the XR3 Hybrid prototype. Or using the technical information in the construction manual, readers will understand the factors that influence fuel economy, and learn how to make any car achieve greater fuel economy. The XR3 Hybrid gives enthusiasts and experimenters the opportunity to significantly reduce their transportation expenses and have fun doing it.
Plug-In Hybrid Architecture
When set up as a hybrid, the XR3 is a plug-in hybrid. This makes it possible to drive on battery power alone on trips of about 40 miles (100 miles when built as a pure battery-electric vehicle with additional batteries installed in place of the engine and transmisison). And when both the diesel and the battery-electric systems are used in series, fuel economy increases to over 200-mpg(e). A plug-in hybrid simply means that part or all of the vehicle’s energy is taken from the grid system where it is cleaner and less costly to produce. Most of the world’s automakers are now working on plug-in hybrids.
Virtually Unlimited Options
The plug-in architecture also allows much greater flexibility in power system choices. With a mild hybrid, like the Honda Insight and the Toyota Prius, proper control of the power system depends on having known operating characteristics of the subsystems – the internal combustion engine (ICE) and electric systems. Subsystems are selected in advance and controlled by a computer. The computer, however, can properly manage integration of subsystems only when the output characteristics of the two systems are predefined and fixed. Any modification in either of the power systems (electric or ICE) can cause the control system to operate incorrectly.
With the XR3’s unique system, the two front wheels are powered by the combustion engine, and the single rear wheel is electric powered. These two power systems are not connected within the vehicle and they are not integrated by a computer. The connection between the conventional and electric power systems is provided by the ground. Proper phase-in between the two power systems is handled by a simple throttle mechanism and dash-mounted switches that let the driver select between driving under ICE power, electric power, or dual (hybrid) power modes.
In the hybrid operating mode, the XR3 has lots of burst power for quick acceleration. If you were to use this acceleration potential to its fullest, fuel economy will be reduced. Fuel economy will also vary according the particular components chosen for the power system. Performance figures quoted here are for a conservatively-driven vehicle having a system configured just like the prototype. Plans provide the information necessary for selecting different components in order to modify the vehicle’s performance characteristics. Builders, however, are free to install a different engine or electric motor without affecting the way the two systems work together, or they can just install one system or the other system.
Build Time and Costs
Figure about 500 – 650 hours of build time, depending on your skill level and which version you build (diesel-only, battery-electric, or hybrid). Much of the time is in building the body. The simple chassis goes quickly. Construction costs are also variable because of the many choices individual builders might make. It’s a modular design that lets builders make choices according to their budget and performance goals. More than half the cost of parts for the XR3 prototype went to the electric propulsion system. This is typical of electric vehicles.
At the upper end, a duplicate of our Li-Ion-powered prototype will top $25,000. If you switch to lead-acid batteries, you can save as much as $5,000, but you’ll have to forego the performance of advanced batteries. At the bottom end of the scale, a diesel-only vehicle capable of achieving 125-mpg can be built for less than $10,000. The modularity of the design allows you to begin with a diesel-only vehicle then add the electric power train components later on.
Similar options exist with a battery-only vehicle. One can simply leave off the combustion power system, install more batteries in the extra space up front, and end up with a BEV capable of driving 150 miles on a charge. Li-ion batteries can be recharged in about two-hours (or less, depending on the charger and line capacity). A full recharge of lead-acid batteries normally takes 6 to 8 hours. With enough line-capacity, however, a Li-Ion battery pack can be brought to about 80 percent charge in less than one hour. But these rapid charge levels somewhat degrade the life of the battery pack and usually require an upgraded electrical service for large current dumps..
These cost-related choices also affect the performance of the vehicle. For example, leaving off the electric propulsion system reduces vehicle weight from about 1500 pounds (682 kg) to approximately 950 pounds (432 kg). This improves diesel-only fuel economy and acceleration.